Tuesday, September 25, 2018

Eagle Butte
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Treaty of 1868 signed at Fort Rice


The 150th anniversary of the signing of the Fort Laramie treaty was commemorated earlier this year in Wyoming, and gained national media attention.

However, not every band of the Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe and the Great Sioux Nation signed the treaty in Wyoming.

This is an overview of the Council of the Indian Peace Commission which took place over three days, from July 2-4 in 1868. The Fort Rice meeting was the largest meeting ever to be held on the Missouri River.

Fort Rice is located 13 miles north of present-day Cannon Ball, ND. This is an excerpt of “History of Fort Bennett” by Harry H. Anderson:

“In order to speed up the negotiations, the commission divided into smaller groups. Leaving a representative at Laramie, one portion left to deal further with the southern plains tribes. Another part, consisting of Generals Terry and Harney and Mr. Sanborn, proceeded up the Missouri to Fort Rice… Lasting three days, the Fort Rice meeting was the largest to be held on the Missouri. Representatives from the Sans Arc, Blackfeet, Two Kettle, Hunkpapa, Upper and Lower Yanktonais, Cut Head and Santee bands were all in attendance. The treaty signed here was the same that had been accepted by the Sioux at Fort Laramie.

On the first day of the meeting, Long Dog (Oohenumpa) spoke. “Creator says today look at my face. It is poor. I am not a chief; I am nobody. What you have said today it is hard for me to assent to.”

Only July 3, Long Mandan (Oohenumpa) spoke: “We had a great council at Fort Rice, but I did not say anything. We only now that you are sent here by the President, but I want to know if there are to be any chiefs amongst us, and if the young men are to obey that…. We chiefs no longer control our young men.”

The Treaty of 1868 was signed at Fort Rice only July 2, 1868.

Sihasapa signatories:

Fire Heart

One Who Kills Eagle

Smoke

Walking Eagle

Oohenumpa signatories:

Long Mandan

Red War Club

Log

Itazipco signatories:

One That Has Neither Horn

Red Plume

Yellow Hawk

No Horn